A new study has been published in Environment International which shows the first quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and other urban contaminants in Amazonian freshwater ecosystems. We assessed exposure patterns in four large cities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Santarém, Macapá, Belém). Our study shows that the chemical burden created by the emission of untreated wastewaters from urban areas poses significant long-term risks for freshwater ecosystems, with chemical mixtures potentially affecting up to 50-80% of species. We conclude that the protection of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems requires the implementation of sanitation measures and wastewater treatment technologies.